Archive for the ‘Fieldwork’ Category

It was the 1980’s, and  I had reached the point where my credibility as an anthropologist demanded I do field work. It would be something on drugs of course. But what exactly?

I decided to formulate some test hypotheses that would cover both social and biological aspects of drug consumption. My research into prehistoric drug use together with findings from ‘current’ neuropsychopharmacology (i.e. from the 1970’s -1980’s period)  would suggest these hypotheses. The  fact that I possessed the rare combination of both pharmacy and anthropology qualifications meant I had the chance to make a worthwhile contribution to an important issue of my time.

I ran into a problem straight away. I could find no references in popular culture of the 1980’s  to the neuroscience concept that drug addiction is a ‘relapsing’ brain disease like schizophrenia or diabetes; that even the though the initial act of consumption is entirely voluntary   brain disease develops over time and that without formal medical treatment, compulsive drug craving, seeking, and consuming take over (Leshner, 1990).

This  neuroscience discovery is, and remains, a gloomy finding. Al Gore might well think of it as another ‘Inconvenient Truth’  like ‘Climate Change’. Could I have been wrong in evaluating so highly the neuroscience research on psychoactive substances ? After all, I am a pharmacist not a pharmacologist. So it was possible the neuroscience findings held flaws I had missed.

Nevertheless, great synergy exists between patterns of prehistoric drug consumption and the neuroscience model of drug effects on individuals. A few examples make the point:   All else being equal, if human biology is capable of producing compulsive drug seeking and consumption, then you would expect to find drug plants among the earliest plants prehistoric people cultivated. Similarly, drugs should be  among the earliest items traded between different environments and populations. Finally, prehistoric populations with regional monopolies on drugs should demonstrate political and social changes forced upon them by the compulsive drug seeking from their addicted non-drug producing neighbours. See my earlier blogs for examples:

A. I. Leshner, “Science-Based Views of Drug Addiction and Its Treatment,” Journal of the American Medical Association 282 (1999): 1314­1316 (http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v282n14/rfull/jct90020.html

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